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Английский язык делового общения

Программа опубликована в сборнике Учебные программы. Специальность Регионоведение (350300) Часть 2. М.,2007
© Факультет иностранных языков и регионоведения


Аве­ти­сян Н.Г.,.Иг­на­тов К.Ю.


Курс «Анг­лий­ский язык де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния» пред­на­зна­чен для сту­ден­тов чет­вер­то­го кур­са фа­куль­те­та ино­стран­ных язы­ков и ре­гио­но­ве­де­ния. Он яв­ля­ет­ся од­ним из цен­траль­ных прак­ти­че­ских кур­сов, изу­чае­мых все­ми сту­ден­та­ми от­де­ле­ния ре­гио­наль­ных ис­сле­до­ва­ний и ме­ж­ду­на­род­ных от­но­ше­ний. В кур­се пре­ду­смот­ре­но обоб­ще­ние зна­ний, по­лу­чен­ных сту­ден­та­ми за три го­да обу­че­ния анг­лий­ско­му язы­ку по всем язы­ко­вым ас­пек­там (фо­не­ти­ка, мор­фо­ло­гия и син­так­сис, лек­си­ка, сти­ли­сти­ка) в рам­ках изу­че­ния де­ло­во­го анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка как язы­ка для спе­ци­аль­ных це­лей (LSP). Курс так­же опи­ра­ет­ся на зна­ния сту­ден­тов по эко­но­ми­ке и биз­не­су, ко­то­рые они по­лу­ча­ют в рам­ках па­рал­лель­но чи­тае­мо­го им лек­ци­он­но­го кур­са «Эко­но­ми­ка и эко­но­ми­че­ская гео­гра­фия», а так­же на фо­но­вые зна­ния сту­ден­тов о со­вре­мен­ной эко­но­ми­че­ской жиз­ни Рос­сии и ре­гио­на их спе­циа­ли­за­ции в со­пос­тав­ле­нии с дру­ги­ми ре­гио­на­ми. Курс рас­счи­тан на 144 ака­де­ми­че­ских ча­са, и мо­жет изу­чать­ся в те­че­ние од­но­го се­ме­ст­ра (4 ака­де­ми­че­ских ча­са в не­де­лю) или двух се­ме­ст­ров учеб­но­го го­да (2 ака­де­ми­че­ских ча­са в не­де­лю).

Не­об­хо­ди­мость изу­че­ния кур­са «Анг­лий­ский язык де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния» обу­слов­ле­на, во-пер­вых, воз­рас­таю­щей ро­лью, ко­то­рую иг­ра­ет де­ло­вая ком­му­ни­ка­ция в со­вре­мен­ной жиз­ни. Во-вто­рых, с точ­ки зре­ния лин­гвис­ти­ки язык де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния пред­став­ля­ет со­бой один из ви­дов анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка для спе­ци­аль­ных це­лей. Его фо­не­ти­че­ские, грам­ма­ти­че­ские, лек­си­че­ские и сти­ли­сти­че­ские осо­бен­но­сти по­зво­ля­ют сту­ден­там, по­лу­чаю­щим уг­луб­лен­ную под­го­тов­ку по ино­стран­но­му язы­ку, луч­ше по­нять функ­цио­наль­ные осо­бен­но­сти LSP во­об­ще, а так­же вы­ра­бо­тать не­об­хо­ди­мые прак­ти­че­ские язы­ко­вые на­вы­ки и ком­му­ни­ка­тив­ные уме­ния ис­поль­зо­ва­ния LSP, ко­то­рые тре­бу­ют­ся спе­циа­ли­стам в ре­гио­но­ве­де­нии. В-треть­их, зна­че­ние анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка как сред­ст­ва ме­ж­ду­на­род­но­го об­ще­ния с де­ло­вы­ми парт­не­ра­ми из раз­ных стран при­да­ет осо­бую важ­ность изу­че­нию имен­но анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния, не­за­ви­си­мо от ре­гио­на спе­циа­ли­за­ции сту­ден­та.

Прин­ци­пы по­строе­ния дан­но­го кур­са ори­ен­ти­ру­ют­ся на под­го­тов­ку спе­циа­ли­стов с та­ки­ми на­вы­ка­ми в де­ло­вом анг­лий­ском язы­ке, ко­то­рые, с од­ной сто­ро­ны, по­мог­ли бы им в их даль­ней­шей на­уч­ной и ис­сле­до­ва­тель­ской ра­бо­те, а с дру­гой – от­ве­ча­ли бы тре­бо­ва­ни­ям их бу­ду­щих ра­бо­то­да­те­лей. При по­строе­нии за­ня­тий в дан­ном кур­се учи­ты­ва­ют­ся сле­дую­щие ас­пек­ты:

- куль­тур­ные и эко­но­ми­че­ские осо­бен­но­сти на­пол­не­ния смыс­лом от­дель­ных по­ня­тий биз­не­са и эко­но­ми­ки в анг­ло­го­во­ря­щих стра­нах и Рос­сии;

- при­ем­ле­мость оп­ре­де­лен­ной час­ти тер­ми­но­ло­гии в эко­но­ми­че­ских сис­те­мах раз­лич­ных стран в за­ви­си­мо­сти от осо­бен­но­стей их по­ли­ти­че­ско­го, со­ци­аль­но­го и куль­тур­но­го ук­ла­да;

- слож­но­сти пе­ре­во­да боль­шин­ст­ва анг­лий­ских тер­ми­нов де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции на рус­ский язык и раз­лич­ное тол­ко­ва­ние анг­лий­ско­го и со­от­вет­ст­вую­ще­го рус­ском тер­ми­на, воз­ник­ше­го пу­тем за­им­ст­во­ва­ния при транс­крип­ции или транс­ли­те­ра­ции;

- от­сут­ст­вие у сту­ден­тов спе­ци­аль­ных эко­но­ми­че­ских зна­ний и прак­ти­че­ско­го опы­та ра­бо­ты в де­ло­вой сфе­ре.

На се­ми­на­рах сту­ден­ты по­лу­ча­ют воз­мож­ность на прак­ти­ке при­ме­нить по­лу­чен­ные ими зна­ния и на­вы­ки в кур­сах «Прак­ти­ка пись­мен­ной ре­чи», «Анг­лий­ский язык для про­фес­сио­наль­ных це­лей», дру­гих язы­ко­вых и лин­гво­ст­ра­но­вед­че­ских кур­сах, а так­же рас­ши­рить свои зна­ния в об­лас­ти эко­но­ми­ки и биз­не­са. Боль­шое вни­ма­ние в кур­се уде­ля­ет­ся куль­тур­ным осо­бен­но­стям де­ло­вой сфе­ры в раз­ных стра­нах. Та­ким об­ра­зом, курс де­ло­во­го анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка ста­но­вит­ся свя­зую­щим зве­ном ме­ж­ду изу­че­ни­ем сту­ден­та­ми все­го ком­плек­са дис­ци­п­лин, свя­зан­ных с ино­стран­ным язы­ком, и про­фес­сио­наль­ным кон­тек­стом его ис­поль­зо­ва­ния. При та­ком по­строе­нии кур­са ос­нов­ным ма­те­риа­лом ста­но­вят­ся не толь­ко су­ще­ст­вую­щие ау­тен­тич­ные учеб­ные по­со­бия и лек­си­ко­гра­фи­че­ские ис­точ­ни­ки, но и ма­те­риа­лы ме­ж­ду­на­род­ных средств мас­со­вой ин­фор­ма­ции и со­вре­мен­ные филь­мы (на­ря­ду с их ли­те­ра­тур­ны­ми пер­во­ис­точ­ни­ка­ми), те­ма­ти­че­ски пе­ре­се­каю­щие­ся с раз­ра­ба­ты­вае­мы­ми в кур­се те­ма­ми.

Ши­ро­та при­вле­кае­мо­го к изу­че­нию ма­те­риа­ла по­зво­ля­ет сту­ден­там не толь­ко по­зна­ко­мит­ся с осо­бен­но­стя­ми де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции в ино­языч­ной куль­ту­ре, но и на их фо­не уви­деть осо­бен­но­сти род­ной куль­ту­ры. При этом сту­ден­ты по­лу­ча­ют воз­мож­ность не толь­ко со­пос­та­вить раз­лич­ные под­хо­ды, но и кри­ти­че­ской оце­нить осо­бен­но­сти биз­не­са в сво­ей и ино­языч­ной куль­ту­ре. В ау­ди­то­рии на за­ня­ти­ях об­су­ж­да­ет­ся при­ме­ни­мость прин­ци­пов той или иной эко­но­ми­че­ской и биз­нес-куль­ту­ры в ре­аль­ных ус­ло­ви­ях жиз­ни в Рос­сии и ре­гио­не спе­циа­ли­за­ции сту­ден­тов. Та­кой под­ход обес­пе­чи­ва­ет под­го­тов­ку сту­ден­тов, бу­ду­щих спе­циа­ли­стов в ре­гио­но­ве­де­нии, в об­лас­ти меж­куль­тур­ной ком­му­ни­ка­ции, что по­зво­лит им в ре­аль­ных си­туа­ци­ях об­ще­ния из­бе­жать оши­бок и чув­ст­во­вать се­бя бо­лее уве­рен­но. Кро­ме то­го, рас­ши­ряя свой сло­вар­ный за­пас и от­ра­ба­ты­вая от­дель­ные грам­ма­ти­че­ские яв­ле­ния, сту­ден­ты рас­ши­ря­ют свой кру­го­зор и го­то­вят­ся к ре­аль­ным ус­ло­ви­ям функ­цио­ни­ро­ва­ния анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка как сред­ст­ва меж­куль­тур­но­го об­ще­ния в де­ло­вом ми­ре.

Цель кур­са

К чет­вер­то­му кур­су сту­ден­ты уже при­бли­жа­ют­ся к вла­де­нию ино­стран­ным язы­ком на вы­со­ком уров­не (‘proficiency’). Курс анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния дол­жен сис­те­ма­ти­зи­ро­вать зна­ния сту­ден­тов в при­ме­не­нии к прак­ти­че­ско­му ис­поль­зо­ва­нию анг­лий­ско­го язы­ка как LSP. По окон­ча­нии кур­са «Анг­лий­ский язык де­ло­во­го об­ще­ния» по всем че­ты­рем ви­дам ре­че­вой дея­тель­но­сти сту­ден­ты при­об­ре­та­ют сле­дую­щие уме­ния:

- по­ни­мать со­дер­жа­ние боль­ших по объ­е­му уст­ных и пись­мен­ных тек­стов, те­ма­ти­че­ски свя­зан­ных с эко­но­ми­кой и де­ло­вой ак­тив­но­стью;

- спон­тан­но го­во­рить в тем­пе, ха­рак­тер­ном для но­си­те­лей язы­ка в дан­ной ре­че­вой си­туа­ции, не ис­пы­ты­вая труд­но­стей с вы­бо­ром язы­ко­вых средств и под­чер­ки­вая раз­лич­ные от­тен­ки зна­че­ний в раз­лич­ных си­туа­ци­ях об­ще­ния;

- гиб­ко ис­поль­зо­вать язы­ко­вые сред­ст­ва для об­ще­ния в на­уч­ной и про­фес­сио­наль­ной дея­тель­но­сти, свя­зан­ной с биз­не­сом;

- соз­да­вать точ­ное, де­таль­ное, хо­ро­шо сти­ли­сти­че­ски кон­ст­руи­ро­ван­ное уст­ное или пись­мен­ное со­об­ще­ние на лю­бую те­му из об­лас­ти де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции, де­мон­ст­ри­руя вла­де­ние мо­де­ля­ми ор­га­ни­за­ции тек­ста, сред­ст­ва­ми свя­зи и объ­е­ди­не­ния его эле­мен­тов, а так­же спо­со­бов под­дер­жа­ния уст­ной бе­се­ды в раз­лич­ных ус­ло­ви­ях;

- соз­да­вать пись­мен­ные тек­сты на анг­лий­ском язы­ке, наи­бо­лее рас­про­стра­нен­ные в до­ку­мен­то­обо­ро­те пред­при­ятия (ре­зю­ме, за­яв­ле­ние о прие­ме на ра­бо­ту, де­ло­вая кор­рес­пон­ден­ция и т.д.);

- со­став­лять связ­ные тек­сты эко­но­ми­че­ской те­ма­ти­ки с опо­рой на раз­лич­ные уст­ные и пись­мен­ные ис­точ­ни­ки.

Раз­ви­тие от­ме­чен­ных на­вы­ков и уме­ний долж­но ох­ва­ты­вать все важ­ные сфе­ры де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции: де­ло­вые встре­чи, пе­ре­го­во­ры, стра­хо­ва­ние, де­ло­вая пе­ре­пис­ка, фи­нан­сы, струк­тур­ная ор­га­ни­за­ция ком­па­ний, бан­ков­ские опе­ра­ции, рек­ла­ма, раз­го­вор по те­ле­фо­ну и т.д.

За­да­чи кур­са

1. Обу­че­ние сту­ден­тов чте­нию эко­но­ми­че­ской ли­те­ра­ту­ры (на­уч­ной и об­ще­ст­вен­но-по­ли­ти­че­ской те­ма­ти­ки) и де­ло­вой до­ку­мен­та­ции на анг­лий­ском язы­ке.

2. Раз­ви­тие на­вы­ков ре­фе­ри­ро­ва­ния и ан­но­ти­ро­ва­ния тек­стов де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции.

3. Со­вер­шен­ст­во­ва­ние на­вы­ков праг­ма­лин­гви­сти­че­ски ори­ен­ти­ро­ван­ной ра­бо­ты сту­ден­тов с эко­но­ми­че­ски­ми тек­ста­ми – рас­ши­ре­ние сло­вар­но­го за­па­са (пу­тем ус­вое­ния но­вых слов и изу­че­ния осо­бен­но­стей кон­тек­сту­аль­но­го функ­цио­ни­ро­ва­ния уже из­вест­ных лек­си­че­ских еди­ниц) и изу­че­ние средств ком­му­ни­ка­тив­но-ори­ен­ти­ро­ван­ной грам­ма­ти­ки, обес­пе­чи­ваю­щих идио­ма­ти­че­ски пра­виль­ное по­строе­ние ре­чи.

4. Раз­ви­тие на­вы­ков уст­ной ре­чи в сфе­ре де­ло­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции в раз­лич­ных си­туа­ци­ях об­ще­ния.

5. Ус­вое­ние осо­бен­но­стей функ­цио­ни­ро­ва­ния из­вест­ных сту­ден­там грам­ма­ти­че­ских яв­ле­ний в эко­но­ми­че­ских тек­стах, вклю­чая их сти­ли­сти­че­ски мар­ки­ро­ван­ные раз­но­вид­но­сти.


Те­ма­ти­че­ское со­дер­жа­ние за­ня­тий

1 Economics and Economy: The three sectors of the economy; Macroeconomics and microeconomics; Corporate government; Company structure.

2 The Human Dimension: Management and its styles; Management and cultural diversity; Employment and Recruitment; Work and motivation; Labour relations; Business ethics.

3 Production: Products; Quality (TQM, JIT); Quality standards; Quality and people.

4 Marketing: Marketing mix (The four P’s: product, price, place, promotion) and four C’s (customer solution, customer cost, convenience for customers, communication with customers); Brands and branding; Advertising; Promotional tools.

5 Company Finance: Accounting and financial statements; Profit and loss account and balance sheet; Cash-flow statement; Investment ratios; Shareholder value; Accounting standards.

6 Banking and Stocks: Banks, their types and functions; Stocks and shares; Bonds; Futures and derivatives.

7 Market Economy: Market structure and competition; Takeovers, mergers and buyouts; Efficiency and employment; The role of government.

8 Money and Monetary Policy: Central banking, money and taxation; Exchange rates; The business cycle.

9 The Global Economy: Global forces; Investment and debt; International trade; Keynesiamsm and monetarism; Economics and ecology.

Фор­мы кон­тро­ля.

Те­ку­щий кон­троль ус­пе­вае­мо­сти сту­ден­тов осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет­ся на прак­ти­че­ских за­ня­ти­ях при про­вер­ке еже­не­дель­ных до­маш­них за­да­ний и вы­пол­не­нии ау­ди­тор­ных уп­раж­не­ний. До­маш­ние за­да­ния со­сто­ят из боль­шо­го по объ­е­му пись­мен­но­го тек­ста или тек­стов (око­ло 5000 зна­ков), по­сле чте­ния ко­то­ро­го сту­ден­ты вы­пол­ня­ют уп­раж­не­ния на ус­вое­ние лек­си­ко-грам­ма­ти­че­ско­го ма­те­риа­ла и го­то­вят­ся к об­су­ж­де­нию тек­ста, про­во­ди­мо­му в ау­ди­то­рии. Ра­бо­та с уст­ны­ми тек­ста­ми (вре­мя зву­ча­ния: 5-10 мин.) так­же вы­пол­ня­ет­ся сту­ден­та­ми до­ма са­мо­стоя­тель­но. На ау­ди­тор­ном за­ня­тии до­пус­ка­ет­ся од­но­крат­ное пред­став­ле­ние тек­ста для сня­тия труд­но­стей, вы­зван­ных осо­бен­но­стя­ми ком­му­ни­ка­ции (на­при­мер, те­ле­фон­ный раз­го­вор при пло­хом ка­че­ст­ве свя­зи), ак­цен­том го­во­ря­ще­го или его ин­ди­ви­ду­аль­ны­ми осо­бен­но­стя­ми ар­ти­ку­ля­ции. По­ми­мо это­го, сту­ден­ты ре­гу­ляр­но вы­пол­ня­ют пись­мен­ные за­да­ния, при­об­ре­тая на­вы­ки ра­бо­ты с де­ло­вой кор­рес­пон­ден­ци­ей, и го­то­вят уст­ные вы­сту­п­ле­ния по изу­чае­мым те­мам. Про­ме­жу­точ­ный кон­троль осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет­ся в се­ре­ди­не се­ме­ст­ра в ви­де про­ве­де­ния по­лу-се­ме­ст­ро­вой ау­ди­тор­ной пись­мен­ной кон­троль­ной ра­бо­ты (1 ак. час). Ито­го­вый кон­троль осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет­ся в ви­де вы­пол­не­ния ау­ди­тор­ной пись­мен­ной ра­бо­ты, ана­ло­гич­ной по­лу-се­ме­ст­ро­вой, и уст­но­го со­бе­се­до­ва­ния. Кон­троль­ные ра­бо­ты раз­ра­бо­та­ны пре­по­да­ва­те­ля­ми ка­фед­ры ре­гио­наль­ных ис­сле­до­ва­ний с опо­рой на ука­зан­ные в спи­ске ли­те­ра­ту­ры ис­точ­ни­ки.

Ре­ко­мен­дуе­мая ли­те­ра­ту­ра

I. Учеб­ные по­со­бия и ма­те­риа­лы средств мас­со­вой ком­му­ни­ка­ции

1) Ian MacKenzie. English for Business Studies. A course for Business Studies and Economics students. CUP, Seventh printing, 2001. Student’s book, Audio cassette set / Audio CD set.

2) Ian MacKenzie. Management and Marketing. Language Teaching Publications, 1997.

3) Bill Mascull. Business Vocabulary in Use (Advanced). CUP, 2004.

4) Bill Mascull. Key Words in Business. The COBUILD Series. HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.

5) Joy Godwin and Lyn Strutt. Test YourBusiness Vocabulary in Use (Advanced). CUP, 2005.

6) Iwonna Dubicka and Margaret O'Keeffe. Market Leader. Advanced. Pearson Education, 2005. Course Book with Audio cassette / CD set; Practice File Book with Audio cassette / CD set; Test File.

7) David Cotton, David Falvey and Simon Kent. Market Leader. Upper-Intermediate. Pearson Education, 2001. Course Book with Audio cassette / CD set; Practice File Book with Audio cassette / CD set; Test File.

8) Test Your Professional English Series. Series Editor: Nick Brieger. Pearson Education Limited. 2002-2006. Issues: Business: General; Business: Intermediate; Accounting; Finance; Management; Marketing.

9) Tales from the Global Economy. A set of four BBC2 programmes, 2002.

10) BBC World Business Report. Current programmes.

11) CNBC Business News (Closing Bell, etc.).

12) The Moscow Times (current issues). Sections: Business; Sticks; In brief.

13) Ма­те­риа­лы ка­на­ла РБК (на рус­ском язы­ке).

14) Ху­до­же­ст­вен­ные филь­мы: Other People’s Money (1991, directed by Norman Jewison, play by Jerry Sterner); John Grisham’s Rainmaker (1997, directed by Francis Ford Coppola, novel by John Grisham); Wall Street (1987, directed by Oliver Stone); Career Girls (1997, directed by Mike Leigh).

15) Bill Gates. The Road Ahead (His Vision of What the Future Holds). Viking Penguin Inc; 2nd edition, 1996. (CD-Rom recording available).

16) Ава­не­сян Ж.Г. Анг­лий­ский язык для эко­но­ми­стов: учеб. по­со­бие для сту­ден­тов экон. спе­ци­аль­но­стей – М.: Оме­га-Л, 2005

II. Сло­ва­ри

1) Longman Business English Dictionary. Pearson Education, 2000.

2) Oxford Business English Dictionary for learners of English. OUP, 2005.

3) Фе­до­ров Б.Г. Но­вый анг­ло-рус­ский бан­ков­ский и эко­но­ми­че­ский сло­варь. М.: Лим­бус Пресс, 2006.

4) Анг­ло-рус­ский сло­варь по эко­но­ми­ке и фи­нан­сам / Под ред. А.В. Ани­ки­на; Изд. 2-е, пе­ре­раб. и доп., М.: Эко­но­ми­че­ская шко­ла, 2000.

При­ме­ры кон­троль­ных за­да­ний

Business English Test (Variant 1)

50 minutes

PART 1

For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.


Nowadays, it goes without (0)..saying... that the success or failure of a new product depends, to a large (1)............., on the ingenuity of the advertising campaign. In other (2)............. money spent on advertising is preferable to money spent on efforts to improve the quality of the product. What exactly is it, (3)............., that makes an advertisement ‘ingenious’?

What (4)............. innovations in packaging and product design, advertising as a ‘science’ has developed in leaps and (5)............. over the past fifty years.

People have become a lot more aware of advertising techniques and tricks. No (6)............. is it enough to show men and women in white coats poring over microscopes or appearing in front of washing machines. Nor is it enough to show photographs of Mrs X ‘before and after’. (7)............. the same token, advertisements which simply repeat the name of a product over and over again, or which play on people’s feelings of guilt, are regarded as being rather old-fashioned these days. What is (8)............., certain types of advertisement are just not acceptable these days. Those which are thought to encourage anti-social behaviour or racist behaviour, for (9)............., have been banned in many countries.

One of the problems advertisers have (10)............. up against in recent years is that consumers are more sophisticated and more demanding than they were in the past. They face the challenge of (11)............. to promote products which are probably identical to an enormous number of other products on the market. As a (12)............., advertising agencies have been forced to find ways to make the particular item they are promoting unique in (13)............. way or other, or to create a particular image or association for that item. In the world of modern advertising, it is essential to create an ‘atmosphere’ around a product which will appeal to the consumer. (14)............. is amazing, perhaps, is that (15)............. the competition they face, advertisers can still find ways of making particular brand names seem more attractive than others.

PART 2

For questions 16-25, use the word given in capitals at the end of the lines to form a word that fits the space in the same line. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

16

Firms have centralized buying to reduce both cost of goods and administrative............................

HEAD


17

At the end of the year, some of the profits the company has made may be shared out among the shareholders who will receive a............................

DIVIDE


18

Expenses like office telephone bills may be tax............................

DEDUCT

19

In the UK, people who worked and paid into National Insurance can claim benefits from the State. These include........................... benefits and a pension for retirement.

EMPLOY


20

........................... is an indicator that shows that a firm has enough money to survive in the short-term.

LIQUIDATE


21

........................... is an indicator that shows if the firm can meet its debt in the long run.

SOLVE


22

Operating costing is the way of calculation the cost of the services............................

PROVIDE


23

As a boss you have to........................... responsibilities to your staff.

DELEGATION


24

The law has never prevented clever lawyers from finding ways of tax........................... for their clients.

AVOID


25

Removing quotas allows........................... advantage to enrich the world by giving each country a chance to specialise in making the products that it is particularly good at making.

COMPARE


PART 3

For questions 26-31, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Write only the missing word IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

26.

I paid the money into my........................... this morning.

We must ensure that the people responsible for the violence are brought to............................

Employees must on no........................... make personal telephone calls from the office.

27.

Please make your cheque........................... to Coca-Cola.

Interest payments are........................... monthly.

The company’s liabilities include accounts........................... totalling $29.1 million.

28.

As project leader, you will have to........................... people jobs.

The Board of Directors of the company agreed to........................... further funds to develop the new submarine.

The manager should develop strategies, plans and precise tactics, and........................... recourses of people and money.

29.

All pupils are expected to attend school............................

The ruling party holds only a three-vote majority in the............................

The philosophy of the........................... line was to break down the work into simple elements that required no special training.

30.

A company's........................... can consist of cash, investments, buildings, machinery, specialist knowledge or copyright material such as music or computer software.

Beckham and Owen will be great........................... to the teams the play in.

Her........................... include shares in the company and a house in France.

31.

The plant tends to grow in the lighter........................... of woodland areas.

Slow sales have cut profit........................... in the industry.

The poll shows that the government is leading by the narrowest of............................


PART 4

For questions 32-39, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given. Write only the missing words on the separate answer sheet.

32. We offered her the job as she was clearly so much better than the other candidates.

spots

We offered her the job _________________________________the other candidates.

33. Since the advertisement we’ve had more applications than we can deal with.

swamped

Since the advertisement _________________________________ applications.

34. I simply fail to understand some of my colleagues’ attitudes to work.

beyond

I have some colleagues _________________________________ me.

35. The employers’ lock-out is a result of the workers’ threat to strike.

go

The workers ________________________________ why the bosses started the lock-out.

36. There is a rumour that the manager has been accepting bribes.

alleged

The manager _________________________________ bribes.

37. When he refuses to work overtime, I’m certain there’ll be problems.

bound

His _________________________________ create problems.

38. Over the past year the number of house buyers has risen considerably.

increase

Over the past year there _________________________________the number of house buyers.

39. It was difficult to understand her colleagues’ overt hostility towards her proposal.

openly

That her colleagues ____________________________________was difficult to understand.


PART 5

Read the following extract from a book about behaviour at work and the questions on the opposite page. For each question 40-45, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on the separate answer sheet for the answer you choose.

The rules for work are changing. We’re being judged by a new yardstick: not just by how smart we are, or by our training and expertise, but also by how well we handle each other. This yardstick is increasingly applied in choosing who will be hired and who will not, who will be let go and who retained, who passed over and who promoted. The new rules predict who is most likely to become a star performer and who is most prone to derailing. And, no matter what field we work in currently, they measure the traits that are crucial to our marketability for future jobs. They take for granted having enough intellectual ability and technical know-how to do our jobs and focus instead on personal qualities such as initiative and empathy, adaptability and persuasiveness.

Talked about loosely for decades under a variety of names, from ‘character’ and ‘personality’ to ‘soft skills’ and ‘competence’, there is at last a more precise understanding of these human talents, and a new name for them: ‘emotional intelligence’. Emotional intelligence is generally defined as the ability to monitor and regulate one’s own and others’ feelings, and to use feelings to guide thought and action. Emotional intelligence in work life comprises five basic elements: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and adeptness in relationships. It does not mean merely ‘being nice’. At strategic moments it may demand not ‘being nice’, but rather, for example, bluntly confronting someone with the uncomfortable truth. Nor does emotional intelligence mean giving free rein to feelings – ‘letting it all hang out’. Rather, it means managing feelings so that they are expressed appropriately and effectively, enabling people to work together smoothly toward their common goal.

More and more companies are seeing that encouraging emotional intelligence skills is a vital component of any organisation’s management philosophy-And the more complex the job, the more emotional intelligence matters – if only because a deficiency in these abilities can hinder the use of whatever technical expertise or intellect a person may have. To be sure, many people have risen to the top despite flaws in emotional intelligence, but as work becomes more complex and collaborative, companies where people work together best have a competitive edge. In the new workplace, with its emphasis on flexibility, teams, and a strong customer orientation, this crucial set of emotional competencies is becoming increasingly essential for excellence in every job and in every part of the world.

The good news is that emotional intelligence can be learnt. Studies that have tracked people’s level of emotional intelligence through the years show that people get better and better in these capabilities as they grow more adept at handling their own emotions and impulses, at motivating themselves, and at honing their empathy and social adroitness. There is an old-fashioned word for this: maturity. And although emotional intelligence is no magic bullet, no guarantee of more market share or a healthier bottom line, if the human ingredient is ignored, then nothing else works as well as it might.

However, simply being high in emotional intelligence does not guarantee a person will have learned the practical emotional skills that matter for work. For example, a person may be highly sensitive to others’ feelings, and yet not have learned the skills based on empathy that translate into superior customer service, top-flight coaching, or the ability to bring together a diverse work team.

40. What changes with regard to work does the writer mention in the first paragraph?

A Intellectual and technical ability are no longer valued as highly as they were.

B Employees now have higher expectations of each other.

C The potential of employees is now assessed by new criteria.

D Some of the inaccurate judgements that used to be made are no longer made.

41. The writer says that the term ‘emotional intelligence’

A is unlikely to remain in fashion for long.

B is very difficult to define.

C has previously been misunderstood.

D has replaced less suitable terms.

42. According to the writer, emotional intelligence does not involve

A expressing your emotions all the time.

B acting kindly towards others most of the time.

C focusing on a single aim.

D showing that you are angry with someone.

43. Why, according to the writer, is emotional intelligence seen as vital?

A Emphasis on it prevents the wrong people from being given senior positions.

B It enables people to meet the challenges set by changes in the nature of work.

C Lack of it makes the recruitment of good employees difficult.

D It can compensate for a lack of technical or intellectual ability.

44. What does the writer say about emotional intelligence in the fourth paragraph?

A It is often seen as the cure for any problem a company faces.

B It develops naturally in people.

C Some people possess it more than others.

D Understanding of it has increased over a period of time.

45. The writer concludes in the final paragraph that emotional intelligence

A sometimes causes people to make unwise decisions at work.

B is not particularly useful in certain areas of work.

C will soon be valued even more highly than it is now.

D may not enable someone to be good at their job.


От­ве­ты на тест (Variant 1)

Part 1. (1 marks for each answer)

1 extent / degree; 2 words; 3 though; 4 with; 5 bounds; 6 longer; 7 By; 8 more; 9 example / instance; 10 come; 11 having; 12 result / consequence; 13 some; 14 What; 15 despite

Part 2. (1 mark for each answer)

16 overheads; 17 dividend; 18 deductible; 19 unemployment; 20 liquidity; 21 solvency; 22 provision; 23 delegate; 24 avoidance; 25 comparative

Part 3. (2 marks for each answer)

26 account; 27 payable; 28 allocate; 29 assembly; 30 assets; 31 margins

Part 4. (up to 2 mark for each answer)

32 We offered her the job as/because she knocked/could knock spots off the other candidates.

33 Since the advertisement we’ve been swamped with/by applications.

34 I have some colleagues whose attitude to work is beyond me.

35 The workers threatening to go on strike is (the reason) why the bosses started the lock-out.

36 The manager is alleged to have been accepting bribes.

37 His refusal to work overtime is bound to create problems.

38 Over the past year there has been a considerable increase in the number of house buyers.

39 That her colleagues were (so) openly hostile towards her proposal was difficult to understand.

Part 5. (1 mark for each answer)

40 C; 41 D; 42 A; 43 B; 44 B; 45 D


 
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